JavaScript's scopes and closures have been explained!

JavaScript's scopes and closures have been explained!

Michael Asiedu
·Dec 16, 2021·

3 min read

Subscribe to my newsletter and never miss my upcoming articles

Play this article

Table of contents

  • Local Variables
  • Global Variables
  • Lexical Scoping
  • Conclusion
  • Learn More

Understanding JavaScript's Closures is essential to our development journey. However, even the basics of closures can prove difficult to comprehend.

An inner function can access the scope of an outer function through a closure.

Closures define whether a variable can be accessed from another function's scope, as well as whether a function can access the variable from another function's scope.

Don't worry if you don't understand what we're saying; we'll develop some simple code to help.

But first, why closures?

  • Closures are used to give objects data privacy.

  • Closures let you associate data (the lexical environment) with a function that operates on that data.

Let’s write some basic code using variables and functions that will make sense!

JavaScript variables can belong to the local or global scope.

Local Variables

A function can access all variables defined inside the function.

function localScope() {
  const integer = 4;
  return integer * integer;

The variable integer is created within the localScope()

Local Scope occurs when you create a variable inside a function.

From the code above, we can confirm that the visibility and accessibility of the integer is only allowed within localScope()

// integer cannot be assessed from here

function localScope() {
  const integer = 4;
  return integer * integer;

// integer cannot be assessed from here

Global Variables

A function can also access variables defined outside the function.

const integer = 4;

function localScope() {
  return integer * integer;

From the example above,integer is a global variable. In order words, global variables belong to the window object and can be assessed by any function, including localScope()

Contrary to a local variable that can only be used inside the function where it is defined.

Local variables are hidden from other functions and other scripting codes except for their parent function.

Lexical Scoping

Let’s take a look at the code below.

function lexical() {
  var carName = 'Tesla'; 
  // carName is a local variable created by init

  function displayCarName() 
 // displayCarName() is the inner function, a closure

 alert(carName); // use variable declared in the parent function

lexical() creates a local variable carName and a function ,displayCarName()

displayCarName() is an inner function that is defined inside lexical() and is available only within the body of the lexical().

NB: displayCarName() function has no local variables of its own.

It must be noted, inner functions have access to the variables of outer functions, therefore displayCarName() can access the variable carName declared in the parent function, lexical().

Lexical scope means that in a nested group of functions, the inner functions have access to the variables and other resources of their parent scope.


It's critical to grasp the ideas of scopes and closures because they have numerous applications in the world of software development.

Learn More

This blog is dedicated to educating curious individuals who want to learn about technology and improve their skills.

Check out the blog to show your support. Thank you very much.

Share this